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The Internet Commenter: A Valuable Cultural Indicator
26 Jun 2016 at 4:22pm
Having a Disqus commenting account is a truth serum, of sorts. If you're a kind, analytical person who likes to consider the opinions of others and thoughtfully present your own perspective, inte...
The Only Formula for College Success
26 Jun 2016 at 12:33pm
You are likely hearing about the current "frenzy" occurring in college admissions. This confusion and uncertainty regarding the admissions process is coming from the news, teachers, college counsel...
Yes, You Can Train Yourself To Be More Creative. Here's How.
26 Jun 2016 at 10:13am
People often think that creativity is something you're born with or you're not. "My sister is the creative one in the family; she goes to art school," you might hear an accountant say. Advertising ...
Researchers Create Homemade Lava -- For Science, Of Course
24 Jun 2016 at 6:07pm
When molten rock mixes with water, it can do peculiar, unpredictable, even violent things.
The 20 Funniest Tweets From Women This Week
24 Jun 2016 at 1:29pm
The ladies of Twitter never fail to brighten our days with their brilliant -- but succinct -- wisdom. Each week, HuffPost Women rounds up hilarious 140-character musings. For this week's great twee...
For A Day, Broke Students Win
24 Jun 2016 at 11:23am
In a world of mass shootings, Brexit, and a looming dramatic presidential election, the deliberations of the U.S. Department of Education's National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and ...
Here Is What Colleges Can do to Admit More Top Low-Income Students
24 Jun 2016 at 10:22am
Growing up, children have high hopes and big dreams. We tell them that if they study hard and do well in school they can go on to college and achieve great things in our land of opportunity. But ch...
The Rise of Entrepreneurship Among College/Graduate Students and Young Profes...
24 Jun 2016 at 10:20am
Photo Caption: Mount Holyoke College student Woyneab Habte '17 won second place in the Draper competition for her entry "On Her Own," an organization that provides economic opportunities for female...
Public Defenders Stick Up For Judge Persky Amid Recall Effort
24 Jun 2016 at 9:43am
A group of 116 lawyers, criminal defense attorneys and public defenders have signed an open letter in support of Judge Aaron Persky, who handed down a controversial six-month jail term for convicte...
Channing Tatum: 'Rape Culture Is A Very Real Thing'
24 Jun 2016 at 9:09am
Channing Tatum is hot. Channing Tatum is even hotter when he talks about feminism and the fight against rape culture. In a Facebook live stream on Wednesday morning with Cosmopolitan's editor-in-ch...
Coaches -- At All Levels -- Must Do More To Prevent Campus Rapes
24 Jun 2016 at 7:41am
The sexual assault case involving Stanford swimmer Brock Turner, along with the light six-month sentence he received, has brought the problem of sexual assault on college campuses -- especially tho...
106 Things You Can Do To Bring About The Queer Revolution
24 Jun 2016 at 6:42am
When tragedy strikes, how does a community recover? And how do we prevent another one from happening? When "thoughts and prayers" just aren't enough, what else is there? In a world where it seems l...
If You Don't Get Why Campus Rape Is A National Problem, Read This
24 Jun 2016 at 4:39am
For many people, reading the Stanford University sexual assault victim's powerful letter to her assailant was an entry point into the complicated, unjust realities of reporting and punishing sexual...
NBA Draft Winners And Losers From The First Round
23 Jun 2016 at 8:09pm
Draft grades might be impossible to navigate. After all, isn't a draft determined three or four years down the road? That's why we have our winners and losers from the 2016 NBA Draft. It's hardly f...
There Needs To Be A Financial Protest To End Campus Sexual Assault
23 Jun 2016 at 3:35pm
I've remained relatively silent online about the Brock Turner case. I've felt speechless about this subject. What more could I add to this dialogue that hasn't already been said by other writers a...
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College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. More broadly, it can be the name of any group of colleagues (see, for example electoral college, College of Arms, College of Cardinals). Originally, it meant a group of persons living together under a common set of rules (con- = "together" + leg- = "law" or lego = "I choose"); indeed, some colleges call their members "fellows". The precise usage of the term varies among English-speaking countries.
1. The Origin of the United States Usage:
The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States were graduates of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities — they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology. Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were used to — small communities, housing and feeding their students, with instruction from residential tutors (as in the United Kingdom, described above). When the first students came to be graduated, these "colleges" assumed the right to confer degrees upon them, usually with authority -- for example, the College of William and Mary has a Royal Charter from the British monarchy allowing it to confer degrees while Dartmouth College has a charter permitting it to award degrees "as are usually granted in either of the universities, or any other college in our realm of Great Britain."
Contrast this with Europe, where only universities could grant degrees. The leaders of Harvard College (which granted America's first degrees in 1642) might have thought of their college as the first of many residential colleges which would grow up into a New Cambridge university. However, over time, few new colleges were founded there, and Harvard grew and added higher faculties. Eventually, it changed its title to university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" have arisen across the United States.
Eventually, several prominent colleges/universities were started to train Christian ministers. Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Brown all started to train preachers in the subjects of Bible and theology. However, now these universities teach theology as a more academic than ministerial discipline.
With the rise of Christian education, renowned seminaries and Bible colleges have continued the original purpose of these universities. Criswell College and Dallas Theological Seminary in Dallas; Southern Seminary in Louisville; Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois; and Wheaton College and Graduate School in Wheaton, Illinois are just a few of the institutions that have influenced higher education in Theology in Philosophy to this day.
2. Origin of U.S. State Colleges: The Morrill Act:
In addition to private colleges and universities, the U.S. also has a system of government funded, public universities, also, in many cases, known as State Colleges. This system arose in order to make higher education more easily accessible to the citizenry of the country, specifically to improve agricultural systems by providing training and scholarship in the production and sales of agricultural products, and to provide formal education in “…agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other professions that seemed practical at the time.”
In the 1860s, when this act was established, the original colleges on the east coast, primarily those of the Ivy League and several religious based colleges, were the only form of higher education available, and were often confined only to the children of the elite. A movement arose to bring a form of more practical higher education to the masses, as “…many politicians and educators wanted to make it possible for all young Americans to receive some sort of advanced education.” In 1862 Congress passed a measure that “…made it possible for the new western states to establish colleges for the citizens.”. This was extended to allow all states that had remained with the union during the American Civil War, and eventually all states, to establish such institutions.
Most of the colleges established under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act have since gone on to become full universities. Some are amongst the elite of the world.
3. The Rest of the English-Speaking World:
Influenced by their origins in the British Empire, by contact with and sometimes imitation of U.S. academia, and even by modern American pop culture, the rest of the English-speaking world seems to have adopted a mix of the U.S. and British practices.
4. United Kingdom:
British usage of the word "college" remains the loosest, encompassing a range of institutions:
* Colleges of further education and adult education.
* "Sixth form colleges", where students study for A Levels, and some specialist schools
* The constituent parts of collegiate universities, especially referring to the independent colleges that make up the * Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and the London, and which provide accommodation and pastoral services at St Andrews and Durham.
* The non-independent constituent parts of collegiate universities such as Kent, Lancaster and York.
Universities, such as Imperial College London (officially a university) and University College London and King's College London (which are universities de facto).
* A name given to large groupings of faculties or departments, notably in the University of Edinburgh, and possibly the University of Birmingham under restructuring plans.
* University Colleges — independent higher education institutions that have been granted degree-awarding powers but not university status.
* Certain private schools (known as "Public" schools in England) for children such as Eton and Winchester.
* Professional associations such as the Royal College of Organists, the Royal College of Surgeons and other various Royal Colleges.
* The College of Justice or Court of Session of Scotland
In general use, a "college" is an institution between secondary school and university, a college of further education and adult education. These institutions were usually called technical colleges, or tech. Recently, however, with the differences in functionality between universities and colleges becoming less clear-cut, and with the phasing out of polytechnical colleges, many people are starting to call such institutions "universities". Many types of institutions have "college" in their names but are not colleges in the general use of the word; Eton College, for example, would be called not a college, but a school, or by its full name.
In relation to universities, the term college normally refers to a part of the university which does not have degree-awarding powers in itself. Degrees are always awarded by universities, colleges are institutions or organisations which prepare students for the degree. In some cases, colleges prepare students for the degree of a university of which the college is a part (eg colleges of the University of London, University of Cambridge, etc.) and in some cases colleges are independent institutions which prepare students to sit as external candidates at other universities (e.g. many higher education colleges prepare students to sit for external examinations of universities). In the past, many of what are now universities with their own degree-awarding powers were colleges which had their degrees awarded by either a federal university (eg Cardiff University) or another university (e.g. many of the post-1992 universities).
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